MUST READ / Najib Razak / Socio-economy

Brief analysis on the New Economic Model

Update 4 April 2010 : I came across two articles from a twenty year old regarding the economy. I am pleasantly surprise with the clarity of his presentation and the simplicity in his arguments. There is hope out there for the young ones. You can read the articles on the NEM here and here.

Original article:

The book on the New Economic Model (“NEM”) landed on my lap this morning. It is about 200 pages thick.

It is impossible to review it comprehensively over all the technical aspects of it.

Overall, I think it is one of the most ambitious project government is willing to take.

The word ‘ambitious’ I stated above is supported by one of the best line within the document which is;

“To break the logjam of vested interests through political will and leadership”

The statement above is the single most important thing to make the NEM a success.

The New Economic Model: Enablers and Strategic Reform Initiatives

Let’s start with the risk areas of the NEM document.

Firstly, has the NEAC conducted enough study and research when developing this momentous document?

How did they arrive at the conclusion to say that Malaysia has reached its defining moment? Have they made the necessary surveys and tireless statistical data gathering before they can claim that the “NEM takes a holistic approach, focussing also on the human dimension of development, recognising that while we have substantially reduced poverty, a hefty 40% of Malaysian households still earn less than RM1,500 a month. Income disparity must still be actively addressed. Measures are needed to narrow the economic differences prevalent in Sabah and Sarawak as well as in the rural areas of the Peninsula.”

How holistic could the NEM be when just a few days ago, the Deputy Prime Minister revealed that the Government will start to update the data on wealth distribution by race to evaluate the people’s social-economic achievements only after Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad suggested for a more comprehensive study to be done.

Hence, is the NEM’s projections and approach is based on an INFORMED analysis?

By the DPM’s own admission, the data on wealth distribution is not updated. What is the current wealth distribution of the corporate Malays in Malaysia after the PM, Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak announced several liberalisation of the economy particularly in the financial services last year? Has the incorporation of Ekuinas helped to improve the wealth distribution among the Malays?

Or has it gone down for the past one year from the previous 18%?

I believe not getting a complete outlook on the current situation and taking stock on the actual realities of the current social-economy will further increase the chances of the failure rate of the NEM. In other words, we are at risk of being conned by the consultants. If we work from an incomplete data, all the initiatives proposed could be misguided and render the contents of the NEM useless.

Secondly, I believe the NEM is not taking into relevance the other important socio-economic factor when developing the document. They are stressing too much on breaching the USD15,500 per capita  annual income for all Malaysians. In their mind, that level must be breached in order to catapult Malaysia into the high income economies.

But nowhere in the document are they talking about the Purchasing Power Parity (“PPP”). This is a more relevant and accurate measure of a country’s wealth status. There is no point of having high income if the inflation rate is even higher.

Blogger Hidup Tuah succinctly put it as follows:

Low/medium/high income country is based on GDP Per Capita, as defined by the World Bank. It is measured in US$. For example, in 2009, Malaysia’s GDP Per Capita was US$6,818. Hence, Malaysia is categorised as in the middle income group.

If it is measured in PPP, it was US$12,826; nearer to the high income (minimum) level of US$14,818.

Since PPP is a better measurement of comparable purchasing power and, hence, comparable disposable income and, thus, a better approximation of a comparable standard of living, therefore, it is strongly urged that PPP be used instead of US$.

Thirdly, one of their strategies is to develop a quality workforce and reducing dependency on foreign labour. How are they able to achieve this? By reviewing the education system. Apart from shifting educational approach from ‘rote learning’ to ‘creative and critical thinking’, the education system itself must be conducted on a streamlined platform.

If the NEM wants to achieve an inclusive and sustainable resources for the rakyat to benefit, then I believe, the education system must be streamlined into one national school system. This will produce a more equitable product where the graduates of this system can be integrated closely with one another. Thus, everyone comes from the same education system which won’t make them feel alienated from each other. Bahasa Malaysia and English must be  the core unifying factor among the young Malaysians. Only when a strong primary and secondary education system is developed, will the institutions of higher learning can prosper much easier.

The time is now. It is indeed our defining moment.

But alas, will the government have a strong political will and sturdy leadership skills to break the potential logjam of vested interests?

Fourthly, one of the ways to spur the economy with the objective of achieving the high income status is to let the private sector be the engine of growth. After the Currency Crisis of 1997-98, the government had been driving the economy as the private sector has been licking their wounds from the fast paced development they embarked in the early to mid 90’s. They had over extended their financial and business activities and failed to recover completely after the dust had settled at the turn of the century.

Now there are very timid in doing business. The government in turn, took the reins to spur the domestic economy.

With the absence of veritable data, the perception of the private sector being monopolised by one community IS the prevailing perception of the current situation.

Therefore, the NEM approach of having an economic growth led by the private sector can backfire especially when one of the goals of the NEM is to have a more inclusiveness in the economic development of this country whereby “all communities will be enabled to contribute  to and share in the wealth of the country.”

This will become more important when the private sector is tasked to “promote competition across and within the sectors to revive private investment and market dynamism”, assisted by the enactment of a competition law.

What does that mean in a non consultant-ish way?

Generally, there will be an open competition with a level playing field in all development stages. Tender for projects will be an open, transparent process. This is very good. Survival of the fittest. Please be careful when any competition law is enacted. At one extreme, it will make it illegal for anyone to gain an upperhand in any tendering process. How the NEAC going to construct and from which country the example of the law they are going to model it from will be an interesting thing to watch.

But will a law such as this contributes to an equitable and fair tender process? When some industries such as raw materials, logistics and the whole value chain are being monopolised by a few groups of people, surely only the same people will get the projects. With the practice of ‘know-who’ and not ‘know-how’ is very much entrenched in our society, there is no way the distribution of the projects could be done in a way that will allow all communities to “contribute and share”.

Ultimately, the economy will turn into an aquarium effect where food from above is eaten up quickly by the big fishes at the upper levels and only the crumbs will reach the smaller fishes at the lower levels.

Enter the fifth risk area of the NEM – the setting up of an Equal Opportunity Commission (EOC). The name itself will draw flak from the proponents of Article 153 of the Constitution. Again, just like the potential streamlining of the education system, will the government have enough willpower to wade this through?

The composition of the members in the EOC will be an equally interesting thing to see. The  motives (personal and professional) of  the members in the EOC will inexplicably steer the ultimate aim of the EOC. It is documented in the NEM that the EOC will cover and discriminatory and unfair practices.

Will the EOC take into account the quota requirements enshrined in the Constitution,  or  will it look into the unfair practices of some economic elements that are plaguing the economy and stifling the other would be players?

Sixth, the government will sell its land which has one of the highest value to the private sectors. These parcels of land are near the Jalan Ampang, Jalan Lidcol and Jalan Stonor. I find it hard to imagine why would the government sell these to people outside the government. Theorectically, the government is decreasing its potential wealth if they don’t outsource it out (if they believe they have no capacity to develop it). They should have just let governmental agencies to develop it. When you lose something monumental like this, it will be difficult to earn it back. UDA , PNB or Felda Pelaburan Hartanah Berhad (PHB) for instance, can be tasked to develop the land without the government losing it forever.

Another initiative that the government is embarking is to list two subsidiaries of Petronas in Bursa Malaysia in order to reduce the government’s presence directly or indirectly in their business activities. Who will buy these shares ultimately? Will the people with the lowest income afford to buy these shares? Will a more equitable wealth distribution be achieved through this method? Will 18% turned into 38%? Or will it dwindle even lower? How will this benefit all Malaysian ultimately?

Another con job in the making?

These are interesting times indeed. That is why I said in the beginning, the NEM is a very ambitious project to propel and catapult Malaysia into a developed status.

Now, there are many good and viable areas of the NEM. As you can see and read from the document, not all are bordering the fantastical and unrealistic mind of a consultant.

The aim to reduce rent-seeking behaviour and market distorting features is applauded. Its needs based approach for the lower income group is laudable. The best thing about the NEM is its affirmation that the previous economic policies did work.

NEM stated that it is not aimed to replace the New Economic Policy (“NEP”) or the New Development Policy (“NDP”) because of their perceived failure; it is aimed to build on the successes of the NEP and the NDP despite the many implementation weaknesses the previous policies have. The fact of the matter is, the NEP and its subsequent policies did achieve quite a number of success during their years of implementation. Only a few people with vested interests would continue to manufacture misperception of their failure.

At a crossroad where the nation is taking stock of itself, the current economic policies must be tweaked and amended to suit the current conditions. Hence, the birth of the NEM.

Thank you.

26 thoughts on “Brief analysis on the New Economic Model

  1. “This will become more important when the private sector is tasked to “promote competition across and within the sectors to revive private investment and market dynamism”, assisted by the enactment of a competition law.”

    Perhaps “competition law” means anti-trust laws to break up non-strategic monopolies. We’ll have to wait and see when more details emerge.

    But I will say that Najib’s dream of raising PCI from US$7,000 to 16,000 which implies a compounded growth rate of 10% per year (by 2016?) is a pipe dream.

    My quick assessment of the NEM? Long on rhetoric and waffle, short on facts, details and tried and trusted strategies!

    dpp
    We are all of 1 race, the Human Race

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  2. Sdr JMD,

    Saya tekah memberi komen saya mengenai NEM ini di blog Ondastreet di sini , di sini dan di sini.

    Saya juga telah mengaitkan bagaimana “keterangkuman – penyertaan secara menyeluruh anggota masyarakat” dalam menyumbang ke arah mencapai “pendapatan tinggi” dapat dilakukan sedangkan kerajaan pada hari ini tidak menitik beratkan soal persefahaman / penyatuan di kalangan masyarat. Contoh yang paling mudah adalah seperti Sdr sebutkan juga, yakni, penggunaan Bahasa Kebangsaan dan juga Sistem Sekolah Satu Aliran Kebangsaan. DS Najib galak mempromosikan bahasa Mandarin, dan nampaknya tidak gemar terhadap saranan Sekolah Satu Aliran Kebangsaan. Beliau menggalakkan lagi pertumbuhan sekolah-sekolah vernakular.

    Bagaimana keterangkuman (penyertaan masyarakat secara menyeluruh) dapat dilakukan sedangkan polarisasi antara kaum semakin melebar? dan kerajaan DS Najib tidakpun berusaha memperbaiki polarisasi ini, malah lebih melebarkan jurangnya dengan mempromosikan identiti “rojak” di negara ini.

    “The defining moment ” itu agaknya Najib kini adalah PM, maka perlu ada sesuatu utk dijadikan sebagai mercutanda pemerintahan beliau. Maka DEB dibuang dan diganti dgn NEM? Agaknya lah.

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  3. JMD
    I don’t have the luxury of knowing the economics of malaysia solely because neither my background nor my experience can be the determination of what MEB is all about.
    What to do, oh, what to do…
    So, above all else, i used my gut feelings and my years of living in malaysia to evaluate the MEB.
    my gut says, that
    “if the first step or path taken is used as the measurement of the second step or other path failed, no matter what the reason(s) it or they maybe, then the rest of the movement or direction will be futile even if we managed to break-fix or circumvent the momentum”
    put it another way, if DEB failed, MEB will surely do.
    Different packaging, different branding, ingredients are the same. Sooner or later, people will know and they will.

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  4. Who are the people involved in the making of The NEP?
    Must be some sort of a superman that comes out with such model in double quick time!!!
    Typical Malaysia bolih…janji siap!!!

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  5. JMD,

    How is it possible to play fair whilst our supply pipeline is being controlled by the minority?

    Look at just the basic daily essentials like vegetables, fruits, fish, meat is in the hands of minority. We have not even touch other industry….

    I am not sure if it is even possible to see it in my lifetime to see equitability…..

    Knowing how beureucratic things get… I totally agree with you, more likelihood only the crumbs will be trickling down to the rakyat.

    Sometimes, what we really need is a good bala’ to jolt things up because selagi tak kena semuanya tak sedar diri.

    Keturunan Jebat

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  6. TPM TS Muhyiddin appears smart and sensitive to the needs of the people. People like Tun Dr Mahathir, and myself included, need to have the latest data showing the position of the Malays, relative to the more advanced Chinese, economically and educationally. These are two areas the Malays were left far behind due to the British colonial policy.

    The Government must release the figures to enable the rakyat to comment intelligently on the NEM. The Consultants must have used data when formulating the NEM. But one wonders whether they are using the latest figures because TSM talks about “updated data”. Whatever figures they use must be released to the public immediately. Without those, it is difficult to say whether whatever emphasis placed in the NEM will lead to long term unity in the country or not.

    It’s well and fine to have income figures the same as those of the US and other advanced countries. But we have a peculiar situation in this country of the identification of functions still according to race – that which the policies fater 13 May 1969 tried to rid but unsuccessful until now. That peculiar situation has greatly contributed to the increasing racial polarisation in the country since the previous administration.

    We must have those figures of wealth in the various fields, of educational achievement in the various professions, and other data showing how wide the gap in the position of the Malays, the majority in the country now only known to have 18% of corporate wealth, and the Chinese, being 23% of the population but controlling practically all sectors of the economy. We don’t even know ownership figures of commercial properties, etc.

    If those kinds of figures are not given out, it would appear that the Government just wants to eye wash the public with beautiful jargons and high fluting suggestions of Equal Opportunities Commision and such. As TDM has said, you cannot have equal opportunities when there is Article 153. The vast disparities created during British colonial rule must be sufficiently addressed. You cannot have open competition without a level playing field. That is not fair.

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  7. JMD

    Interesting comment. So many pertinent questions and so many uncertainties on this new model.

    Comforting clause like…”NEM stated that it is not aimed to replace the New Economic Policy (“NEP”) or the New Development Policy (“NDP”) …” means nothing at the moment.

    But this one…..”Another con job in the making?” brings butterflies in my stomach.

    Are we back to Dollah era again?

    mohamed

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  8. Salam JMD

    If I may add, nowhere in the document are they talking about Human Development Index (HDI) which has been renowned as the most appropriate single figure/formula to represent overall quality of life in a country. You may want to dig further into United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) website for yearly HDI reports especially on how HDI is formulated from various economic, technical and social variables. HDI proves that higher percapita income alone does never guarantee higher quality of life.

    Salam hormat.

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  9. Bismillah Hirrohman Niirohim

    I feel good when I saw Najib overcome with emotion at the end of his presentation, at the point when he mentioned 1Malaysia.

    That to me reveals his personal commitment – he cares for his Negara, Bangsa dan Agama.

    Good enough for a WORK in PROGRESS.

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  10. Congratulation, for being able to bring out good points for us to ponder, within a short period of time, after the NEM IS AMBITIOUSLY announced. I agree with all that you have put foward. Tq.

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  11. 1. Yes we need latest info/ data on how entrenched is the domination of one community in the country’s economy, from the basic needs stuff all the way up.

    2. No compromise on article 153 and related articles. If any parties want to bypass these, challenge them to amend the Constitution first.

    3. Yes, the CONsultant shouldn’t use mere high-sounding words and phrases without giving due regard to our history plus socio-economic and political context. How can you simply transplant ideas and concepts. Think Globally, Act Locally. Remember Glocal?

    4. Agreed high income doesn’t automatically translate to high quality of life. Human Development and many other universal indices/ yardsticks can be used.

    5. Form a panel of experienced local eminent persons to critically appraise the logic and recommendations of the report as benchmarked against local context and input.

    6. What can NEM precisely offer to potential Bumi entrepreneurs? Pls list what are on offer plus conditions, processing time, contact details etc.

    7. Don’t forget winners, losers and side-effects.

    8. If the country wants to be Islamic everything hub, show us where’s the Islamic part in the report? Do we want to use Islam as a mere rhetoric or as a solution to real problems?

    9. No point giving the Hulu Selangor seat to MIC when the Indians themselves do not unite behind the party.

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  12. Salam JMD,

    Tengok muka Najib sambil dengar dia berucap ….. terlintas satu gelaran yang sesuai ….. Mat Bunga !

    Najib kalau dengar mesti dia suka hahahahaha….

    I did a translation of this post, added my personal touch untuk orang kampung saya baca.

    Looking forward to ur lengthy analysis…

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  13. So much had been said ,dont know much to say but I felt taht we have not bing fully recoverd from the thruma of Dol Badawi era ,now we are facing another of Dol Najib .

    First 1 Malaysia , then Dasar Librallesasi and now New economic Model only GOD know what come next.
    It”s look like Malaysia being blessed with a dreamer leadership.
    Dongengan Melayu Mat Jenin, telah memimpin kita ,bilakah akan berakhir ?.

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  14. According to the Malaysian Institute of Certified Public Accountants (MICPA, formerly MACPA before the “Association” was changed to “Institute”), the ratio of Malay to Chinese qualified accountants certified by them is 30:70 in favour of the Chinese. Only 30% Malays. The other accountants registration and certifying body is the Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA), which has more members and which, when
    totalled, would further dilute the 30%.

    In a field as important as this, there should be 60% Malays. Malay accountants can help the Malays reach the 30% corporate equity target. The Malays also must have reasonable percentage of ownership in all other spheres of economic activity in the country. The Malays badly need to catch up with the Chinese in the accountancy category of professionals. They need to continue having the assistance in education that have been afforded them under the New Economic Policy. In this and in respect of reducing economic disparities, what Equal Opportunities is the New Economic Model talking about? Surely there are other ways of achieving economic progress that are not at the expense of, or encroaching upon Malay rights and interests?

    Accountants are professionals certified to do work like auditing, certifying accounts, preparing feasibility studies, and financial engineering, arranging for finance from banks and other financial institutions, company take-overs, reverse take-overs, management buy-outs, and so on.

    The more there are Malay accountants, the more there will be of them in business, not just as audit firms, but also doing other businesses that will help change the landscape of shopping malls, business centres and rows and rows of shops in the entire country where hardly any Malay signboards are seen except for restaurants business.

    We badly need to see the “updated figures” that Tan Sri Muhyiddin spoke about, that Tun Dr Mahathir had asked for, that MPM and the 76 Malay NGOs are now echoing. Perkasa’s President, Dato Ibrahim Ali, has revealed, “During Perkasa’s meeting with Tan Sri Amirsham, we found that the National Economic Action Council did not have up-to-date data on the socio economic situation of the country”. He was quoted even by the Malaysian Insider. This is a very glaring inadequacy. It questions the very foundation of the New Economic Moel being drafted.

    Considering the above, how reliable in terms of long-term unity is the New Economic Policy and how valid is the idea of an Equal Opportunities Commission? You cannot have equal opportunities when there is Article 153. You cannot have a new long-term economic policy when it is not based on up-to-date figures on the vast Malay and non-Malay economic and educational disparities.

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  15. Correction to my earlier comment, with apologies:

    The last paragraph of the comment – New Economic Policy should be read as New Economic Model.

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  16. Dear JMD,

    I called it “Garbage In = Garbage Out”. When a non-accurate data is used, then a non-accurate action plan will come out.

    Sincerely,
    Abdul Razak Harun

    p.s. What is your takes on Kickdefella revelation on this issue http://kickdefella.wordpress.com/2010/03/30/tu-diaaaaaaa-bhg-2-tauke-derma-kekal-mursyidul-am-pas/ . One of my favorite blog site for information cross analyzing ( http://www.malaysia-today.net ) is so quite on this and there is no comment from either PKR & DAP too.

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  17. “But nowhere in the document are they talking about the Purchasing Power Parity (“PPP”). This is a more relevant and accurate measure of a country’s wealth status. There is no point of having high income if the inflation rate is even higher.”

    I don’t think this is a very good idea:

    1. There are many methods to arriving at PPP-adjusted income, the World Bank has one, the IMF another and the OECD another still. The Penn World Tables, which is designed to facilitate international country comparisons, uses the synthetic international dollar rather than the USD. As a result, estimates vary considerably. Using a nominal measure has the advantage of being clear, unequivocal, and not prone to political “fudging”.

    2. I have to point out that high income countries in general have high price levels (the so-called Penn effect) – inflation is a natural consequence of higher labour cost input. However, it might not turn up as an increase in the CPI, because of the interplay between the internal and external exchange rates and the components of the CPI. I fully expect CPI growth to stay on its long term average of 3%, but with deflation in imported items (food/transport/clothing & footwear etc) matched by increased inflation in domestic produced goods and services (healthcare/retail trade/wholesale trade/tourism related etc).

    On that score I’m encouraged by the NEM proposal for a social safety net and an adjustment fund, unemployment insurance and pension schemes covering non-EPF members. The NEM will be highly disruptive to existing industries (especially the export sector), and will also impact the poor and low-income groups the worst.

    JMD : Thank you for commenting. I find it rewarding to have an economist commenting in this blog. Yes, there are a few good things about the NEM just like what I have mentioned and what you have mentioned above. I mentioned the PPP because statistically, if we based on the cost of living here in Malaysia, we are well better off than Singapore and Hong Kong eventhough those 2 countries have much higher per capita income. Malaysia is the 58th highest in the world if we compare the per capita income while Singapore is 3rd while HK is 5th. But the purchasing power of our country is higher than both of them at 28th whereas Singapore and HK are in the 40’s.

    PPP vis-a-vis GDP per capita is very important here in Malaysia because we are not urban based country like Singapore or HK. We have vast rural areas. People in Singapore and HK can afford to have high cost of living because they have access to high income jobs.

    People in the rural areas such as Malaysia won’t. When cost of living in Malaysia increase steadily regardless geographical location, the people in rural areas will suffer the most. For example, a stark increase in domestic good prices will happen everywhere in the country. The prices of goods in Kuala Lumpur will only be marginally higher than the prices of goods in Setiawan, Perak or in Mersing, Johor. But the people in KL may afford it; people in other rural areas won’t.

    Will the safety net provided by the government in the NEM enough to sustain the spiraling cost of living? Thus PPP should be one of the measure the government must take into consideration. There is no point of having high income but the cost of living is even higher.

    The ones that will suffer would be the people in the rural areas. Unless of course, the government intends to urbanise every nook and crany here in Malaysia from Arau, Perlis all the way to Sandakan, Sabah🙂

    Thank you again for your comment. Really appreciate it.

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  19. JMD, apart from your comments, may I add.

    MEB is a farce. Estimates – Orang Aslis are earning below RM100 a month. The pribumis of Sarawak and Sabah in the interior and are eaning RM300 and so are the hardcore poor. The poor are getting RM500. Improve their lot before leaping to RM4500pm (why quote in USD? Yuan rules in 10 years time). The Orang Asli don’t even own land!

    MEB is unnatural and virtual. The world is not fair. Greed rules. Might is right. Corruption reeks. In any place and society in the world there exists economic stratification. Alleviate the poor and weak and try reduce the economic gaps. The law of averages don’t work here. Whats the use of statistics when 20% of the people are super rich and 1% are supernumerical rich?

    Middle income trap. So what? There will be always middle incomers. That’s their acrument based on skills, education, opportunities, inputs and preferred lifestyle.

    Artificial forcing for high income bracket promotes get rich quick attitude, pillaging, corruption, destruction, societal breakdown and ills.

    Growth by all means but let it be fulfilling, sustainable and humanistic. Be a dream chaser but let not the dream chase you.

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  20. The Chinese have control over the economy. They own a very high percentage of corporate wealth – I won’t dare say the figure as I have not seen the updated one. The figure is well beyond the percentage of the Chinese in the total population of the country.

    The vast majority of the Chinese are well to do. The list of billionaires in Malaysia is full of them. The millionaires and half millionaires are aplenty. Malay wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few. There has been huge mistakes in the implementation of the NEP. Just amend the mistakes. Show real political will in weeding out corruption both in politics and elsewhere. But don’t deprive the whole Malay race because of the greed of a few. Don’t abandon the NEP objectives and strategies but instead continue and reinforce them in the MEB. Otherwise the grudges and dissatisfaction of the Malays, the majority in the country, will continue endlessly. It’s not good for unity and progress.

    The aim of increasing income for the 40% lower income is laudable. Although it may mean that, if this is successful, the Chinese will have zero low-income members in their community, let the policy cover everybody irrespective of race. But the idea of open competition and Equal Opportunities Commission appears to subvert Article 153 of the Constitution on the Special Position of the Malays. I object to that vehemently.

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  21. After reading some of the comments, I would like to ask : Why is it that these 40 years of NEP, NDP whatever of favouring the Bumis, had not been able to propel them to the “targetted” wealth accumulation ? And what makes you think that by continuing with this, the target can be achieved ? The data is just a number. Not the time to think about competing internally anymore – it is global survival, folks. So, be it whatever the % says.

    The other races are more competitive. The more adverse the condition is, the more competitive they strive to become. It is a survival instinct. So, unless you stop them from advancing and hope that Bumis catch up, in 50 or 100 years, you will continute to say that it is not a fair-playing level by your standards. Then again, is it fair to deprive one group from moving forward ?

    I am sure the govt realise that they can’t afford to do this.
    The solution is not to hand out goodies anymore, but to wake up and face reality. Survival does not depend on others. One just have to change one’s mindset to be competitive, not dependent.

    JMD : Thank you for the comment. I have discussed this kind of opinion here.

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